Tag Archives: mobile learning

3 New Reports on Edtech for Refugees, Displaced Populations and Deprived Settings – Your Weekend Long Reads

There are over half a billion children living in countries affected by conflict and disasters, making them three times more likely to be out of school than children living in stable, but low-income countries. 51% of all refugees in the world are children, and refugee girls at secondary level are only half as likely to enrol in school as their male peers. How do we provide quality and inclusive education in these contexts?

To help answer this question three reports on edtech for refugees, displaced populations and those living in deprived contexts have recently been published. Two of them certainly add to the body of knowledge of what works and what doesn’t when providing education in emergencies. They offer a clear-eyed view of edtech possibilities, based on evidence and removed from hype. The third offers predictions on the future of learning and technology in low-resource contexts.

Each report is rich in content and worth reading. Below is a brief description of each and a sample of highlights that caught my eye.

What Works and What’s Missing in Edtech in Emergencies and Displaced Settings

EdTech for Learning in Emergencies and Displaced Settings: A rigorous review and narrative synthesis, by Save the Children, set out to answer the question: How can the utilisation of edtech (at home or at school) for teaching and learning best facilitate the learning process of children in crisis-affected settings?

The report found that while there is little applicable evidence that is relevant for those engaging in education in emergencies, there is nearly three decades worth of research into ‘what works’ in edtech in general. Save the Children felt that if it “cautiously cast the net a little wider, there were areas where research from more stable contexts could be used to inform practice in emergency settings as well.” The authors reviewed over 130 academic papers on edtech’s impact on learning outcomes.

Some of the main findings include:

  • The mere access of ICT in schools or at home is not sufficient to improve learning outcomes. A number of factors must be in place for learning outcomes to improve. This confirms what most have seem in edtech implementations. And yet the report does not include the recent evaluations of the two EduApp4Syria games, which found a small, but positive, impact on literacy levels and psychosocial wellbeing for children playing the games unassisted by parents or teachers. (Sugata Mitra’s hole in the wall project also springs to mind.)
  • Edtech must be implemented in line with the local curriculum. This has serious implications for initiatives relying heavily on open content such as Khan Academy, Wikipedia, etc. Not to say those resources are not valuable, but sooner or later there needs to be alignment with the local curriculum.
  • Scaffolded, appropriate, and adaptive software can be extremely useful in classroom settings. Edtech can indeed support teachers and free them up to engage in greater student-teacher interaction. Yay!
  • Adult/teacher led scaffolding is key to productive learner engagement with technology. In short, the report says that in-app scaffolding is not enough without an adult or teacher there to help. Controversial.
  • Poor teacher training leads to poor results. Continued teacher development positively correlates with successful edtech take up. Hear hear!

Education Possibilities for Refugees

The second report A lifeline to learning: Leveraging technology to support education for refugees is from UNESCO. Drawing on a review of over 117 relevant papers and reports and analysis of 52 distinct projects, the report seeks to better understand how mobiles can open educational opportunities for refugees.

Key findings include:

  • The use of mobile technology can be a strong complement to intensive face-to-face engagement when refugees are experiencing severe trauma and mental health difficulties.
  • Although low language and literacy skills can be the most pervasive and potentially damaging barrier to educational participation for a refugee learner, to date there is little evidence that documents the efficacy of specific learning and literacy apps in refugee settings. (Again, the EduApp4Syria is relevant here.) Mobile-enhanced conversational and situated learning scenarios deserve further analysis, as some examples in the report indicate.
  • To date, there are few projects and formal studies on mobile teacher training in refugee contexts. The Teachers for Teachers project in Kakuma camp, Kenya, by Columbia University is a great example of how teacher training and virtual mentoring is possible.
  • Although some digital content for refugees is available in the form of open educational resources (OER), it is often scattered and unaligned with the education systems in which it is used.
  • Digital technologies that capture and analyse education data can play an essential role in improving basic operational, planning and controlling functions in education systems in refugee and crisis settings. However, current technological (and political) structures infrequently document, certify or acknowledge refugees’ prior educational achievements or current progress. This is a process, not a technology, problem.
  • Despite the relevance of cultivating refugees’ job-related and vocational skills, few of the identified projects use mobile media to support vocational training.
  • A pattern to emerge is the integration of mobile social media and mobile instant messaging spaces in educational designs, although how to obtain big data from instant messaging apps remains a problem.

Both reports highlight the need for more evaluations and exploration of edtech learning possibilities for refugees and displaced populations.

Looking Ahead

The final report, again published by Save the Children, is The Future of Learning and Technology in Deprived Contexts. Looking forward to 2020 and 2025, the report is based on a literature review, interviews with experts, a workshop and consultations with Save the Children staff.

Tim Unwin, one of the authors, offers a useful summary of the key points. Concerning changes in basic education which are likely to be apparent by 2025, some observations include the following:

  • The pace of change in education is likely to remain slow in most countries. Further, there will be increased diversity and inequality in learning practices and opportunities. Not a rosy outlook.
  • On the upside: The diversity of content provision will increase and there will be greater emphasis on non-formal and lifelong learning.
  • The use of technology will be all-pervasive. I hope this will be true, but I’m not that optimistic. Also, the report says “it may well be that by 2025 many traditional literacy skills will also have become replaced by technology, so that children do not have to learn to read and write and will simply speak and listen mediated by ICTs.” Very controversial!

Concerning ICTs for education in crisis-affected areas in 2025, a few predictions include:

  • Mobile technologies will increasingly enable children fleeing crises to continue to participate in both formal and informal learning.
  • Much more extensive use will be made of online resources to provide counseling for those traumatised by disasters and war (tying up with the UNESCO report finding).
  • Online resources will be available specifically to provide children in acute crises with additional information to enable them to be better able to survive.
  • It is likely that by 2025 numerous different ICT-enhanced school-in-a-box solutions, combining connectivity, electricity, devices and content, will be available that can be set up quickly and effectively wherever in the world there is a need.
  • There will be much greater use of mobile phones by refugees to find out information about entering other countries, and what they need to know about the different cultures and ways of life there in order to survive.

The focus is clearly on continued learning, psycho-social support and integration into the host setting. These predictions provide great suggestions for where to focus attention in new apps and services.

Photo: (c) S. Sheridan / Mercy Corps

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UNESCO report on mobiles for teacher support

unesco_supporting_teachers_cover_smallOn World Teachers’ Day (5 October) we celebrate the wonderful people all over the planet who have dedicated their lives to the education of others. Without the commitment and patience of teachers, none of us, the educated, would be where we are today.

However, on this day we also know there are not enough teachers in the world. In fact, to meet the first target of Sustainable Development Goal 4 — ensure that by 2030 all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education — is it estimated that 69 million new teachers will need to be recruited. Furthermore, pre-service and in-service teachers need to be trained and supported throughout their careers. All viable options, including digital technologies, need to be leveraged to achieve this goal.

In the spirit of solving the twin challenges of teacher supply and teacher quality, UNESCO recently released the report Supporting teachers with mobile technology, which draws lessons from UNESCO projects implemented in Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan and Senegal between 2012 and 2014. I managed the project in Nigeria along with Mark West, the report’s co-author. The projects, implemented through a partnership between UNESCO and Nokia (now part of Microsoft), aimed to explore how mobile learning technologies can support teacher development.

The report offers rich descriptions of the four different project contexts, approaches and evaluations, and is well worth reading. Below is a selection of key points from the conclusion, some well known in mobile learning, others new. Hopefully they inspire the edtech community to keep working to support teachers.

Findings about the perceived impact of the projects

  • Contrary to the notion that educators are tech-phobic and resistant to change, in all four projects the participating teachers were enthusiastic to experiment with ‘outside the box’ approaches to teacher professional development.
  • Teachers wanted more training. Even though there were significant efforts to provide initial and ongoing support, more can only help. The range of tech troubles also cannot be underestimated, which require on-site and virtual support.
  • Unsurprisingly, teacher use of ICT increased substantially as a result of the intervention, which led to them reporting dramatically improved ICT skills. This, in itself, is noteworthy (as reported in the World Bank’s World Development Report 2018), as teacher digital literacy is crucial for mobile learning.
  • While teacher pedagogy was not formally measured by the project evaluations, in all countries teachers reported increased learner participation in the classroom, especially in Pakistan and Nigeria.
  • No clear increase in communication between teachers was found. This result is somewhat disappointing as mobiles have been shown to enable peer-to-peer learning amongst teachers. The report notes that more attention could have been paid to encouraging this type of communication.

Lessons learned

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Teacher training in Nigeria

  • Mobile phones appear to provide a viable means to expand access to professional development opportunities. As the report notes, this is exciting because it means that an increasingly widespread technology offers a vehicle to support teachers living in areas where traditional capacity building opportunities are scarce.
  • Access to mobile phones should not be conflated with a mobile learning solution. An ecosystem approach is needed, including compelling content, institutional partners, extensive teacher training, ongoing project support, communication campaigns and buy-in from education leaders.
  • Consistent and well-curated educational resources appear to be hallmarks of effective mobile learning content. The report describes how the UNESCO projects seemed to work best when they provided teachers with discrete, well-organized and sequenced packages of learning resources that established clear learning pathways. Highly interactive content is not always needed or appropriate.
  • Mobile learning solutions carry significant costs. Digital is not always cheaper, not only regarding the tech itself, but the complementary activities. For example, the teacher training workshops proved to be the most expensive and logistically complex aspects of the four country projects.
  • Mobile learning solutions for teachers have numerous limitations and are not yet substitutes for traditional and evidence-based teacher training and development. While mobile phones offer much potential for professional teacher development and support, they also come with limitations such as small screen sizes that limit interaction possibilities. Tablets and laptops overcome some of the barriers but, even for them, mobile learning solutions should supplement rigorous teacher training programmes, not replace them.

The report offers a few recommendations for the continued efforts to support teacher professional development using mobile technologies.

CCTV interview: Technology as a tool to transform learning

I appeared on CCTV America along with Scott Himelstein, director of the University of San Diego’s Center for Education Policy and Law and Mobile Technology Learning Center, to discuss our vision for using technology as a tool to transform learning.

Here is the interview.

CCTV America

5 Take-aways from the UNESCO Mobile Learning Week Webinar

The 2016 UNESCO Mobile Learning Week kicked off on Monday with a webinar entitled Innovation and quality: Two sides of the same coin? The virtual event, held in partnership with Education Fast Forward, debated the extent to which mobile technology can strengthen the quality of education and facilitate learning.

I blogged about the five key take-aways on ICTWorks – you can read the post there.

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(Image: @AndrewGraley)

 

 

Analysis piece: Mobile learning – Key principles for success

bertha_analysisMobile learning: key principles for success (pdf) is an analysis piece written for the Bertha Centre for Social Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town.

The Center for Education Innovations seeks to provide systemic and easy-to-access information and evidence about innovative education programs around the world, both big and small. I was asked to analyse a number of their South African case studies and draw out key principles for success for mobile learning.

Mobile learning: How to choose the best apps

(This article appeared in Education Southern Africa, September 2015)

The use of mobile devices to support learning is finally coming of age. While the uptake of mobile phones has been staggering – a full third of South Africans now owns a smartphone – their application in education has, by and large, been limited at scale. Mobile devices, phones in particular, have often been viewed as the antithesis of education. Some educators see them as the centrepiece of the age of “3D”, standing fordigital distraction devices. But this is changing fast.

In 2014, Pearson researched the digital landscape1 and interviewed 510 respondents from the educational sphere. Results showed that 80% of learners have access to a smart phone and that 42% of learners plan to buy educational apps in the next two years. This is closely married to the 46% of teachers who also plan to own educational apps.

The potential that mobile devices offer for learning that happens throughout the day in formal and informal contexts, is available just-in-time, is personal, trackable and complementary of other learning formats, is increasingly evident. No wonder large-scale tablet implementations are on the rise across the country: from the Gauteng Department of Education’s Classroom of the future initiative that aims to replace printed textbooks with tablets and transform all its schools into digital learning institutions by 2018, to the ICT4RED tablet initiative at 26 high schools in Cofimvaba, a deep rural district in the Eastern Cape.

Nevertheless, simply replacing paper with pixels does not mean that the benefits of mobile learning will be realised. One only has to use a few of the tens of thousands of educational apps available to know that they are not all of the same quality. It is crucial, when embarking on the path of mobile learning, to select apps that are based on four key design factors.

Firstly, the design of mobile learning apps should be based on a solid theory of learning. It is not enough to just develop an app with educational content and hope people will find it useful. X-kit Achieve Mobile, an on-the-go revision and practice tool developed by Pearson, incorporates this theory into its design.

X-kit Achieve Mobile was informed by the theoretical framework of Stein and Smith2, which recognises increasing levels of cognitive demands. In practice this meant developing content and quizzes that are layered into difficulty levels, and that challenge the learner to develop the necessary skills to move up through the scaffolds and master each subject topic.

Secondly, it is crucial that when designing a mobile app, the context in which it will be used should be considered. Revision on-the-go is one example. Learners have busy schedules with both curricular and extracurricular activities and they need to be able to do short bursts of practice when they can. Only when mobile learning apps are designed around real users – through focus group, user tests, observations and iterative development – is it possible to optimally leverage the learning opportunity.

The true value of mobile is its ability to track usage and performance, as the apps are used throughout the day. This third consideration ensures that engagement and progress are monitored and can result in reporting on learner strengths and weaknesses. With X-kit Achieve Mobile teachers can set class assignments and draw rich reports on learner performance. Such analysis informs lesson planning and interventions where needed. The self-marked quizzes also save teachers time and can be used as evidence of the informal assessments that are required of all learners.

Lastly, there must be a ‘design for delight’ aspect to learning. Features such as the ability to earn achievement badges, join a leader board and compete against friends, select avatars for your profile, and post scores on Facebook or Twitter, will improve learner engagement. It goes without saying that the content must be fully CAPS-aligned and of the highest quality!

By following these four design principles when choosing an educational app, the full benefits of mobile learning can be realised in your classroom as well as beyond.

To learn more about X-kit Achieve Mobile, visit www.classroomsolutions.co.za/X-kitAchieveMobile

1. Source: Digital Learning Landscape, Schools, 2014.
2. Levels of Cognitive Demands Framework, Stein and Smith, 1998.

It’s not (only) about the ebook

footnote-summit-30-l-280x280On 30 July I presented at the Footnote Summit 2015 — “the largest digital publishing event in Africa and is dedicated to tackling the real issues facing publishing today.”

My presentation is titled It’s not (only) about the ebook and describes how delivering ebooks is only one part of a digital learning ecosystem that must be implemented holistically.

Download the presentation here.